FPS Certification Pre-Test

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Pneumatic Specialist

Pre Test PS-3 (408-03)

Introduction

Pre-tests are used to evaluate candidate preparedness for certification tests. Pre-tests may either be taken individually or in a group setting such as during a Review Training Session (RTS). As a part of an RTS, pre-tests are used to allow the instructor to tailor the subject matter coverage to the needs of the audience. When a candidate is studying individually or in a small group, pre-tests provide insight into which areas require further study and whether the candidate should consider other study options, such as an RTS.

Included in this manual are three separate pre-tests for the Pneumatic Specialist Certification test. Each pre-test has its own separate answer sheet which appears at the end of the pre-tests. Individual pre-tests are numbered PS-1, PS-2, and PS-3. The answer key for all three pre-tests appears at the end of the manual.

Candidates are encouraged to take a pre-test early in the study process. Pre-tests should be taken under timed conditions. A maximum of forty-five minutes should be allotted for each pre-test. This should be sufficient time to answer all twenty-five questions on the pre-test. The results of the pre-test will guide the candidate to one of four possible courses of action regarding tests preparation.

1. Take the test: Preparation is sufficient.

2. Study the material using the Study Manual.

3. Attend a Review Training Session (RTS): Preparation is good, but not sufficient to pass the test.

4. Participate in a formal (general) course: A Review Training Session would not provide adequate preparation to pass the test.

Additional pre-tests should be taken after individual study or attendance at an RTS to further evaluate test readiness. In some instances, it may be desirable to take all three pre-tests at different times during the study process to better access preparedness and effectiveness of study.

The answer sheets provided have been developed such that each question is referenced to a particular subject matter area of the study manual and of the test. The candidate is encouraged to fold the answer sheet vertically along the dotted line before taking the pre-test. This will eliminate any bias that may occur by having the appropriate outcome statement appear with the answers and more closely mimics actual test conditions. After checking the answers, the answer sheet may be opened to reveal the areas where further study is needed. This should enable directed study in the areas where a deficiency exists.

Candidates should be advised that each pre-test covers only a representative sample of the types of questions found on the test. Due to the need to keep the pre-test brief, not all subject matter is covered on every pre-test. Thorough preparation for the Certification test is strongly encouraged.

The experience of taking pre-tests under timed conditions should reduce test anxiety associated with the actual certification test. If necessary, candidates may wish to retake the pre-tests after some period of time has elapsed to recheck their knowledge.

Suggestions or comments for improvements of these pre-tests and other certification materials should be sent to: Fluid Power Society Education Institute, c/o FPS, 2433 N. Mayfair Rd. Suite 111, Milwaukee, WI 53226, 414-257-0910.

Pneumatic Specialist
1. What torque could be expected from an air motor that is rated at 2.5 hp at 2250 rpm? a. 0.93 lb-ft. b. 1.07 lb-ft.
c. 1.97 lb-ft. d. 5.84 lb-ft.
e. 8.45 lb-ft.
2. A 750 lb load is to be pushed up a 30° incline by an air cylinder with a 4 in. bore. If the coefficient of friction between the surface and the load is 0.35, what minimum air pressure will be required to extend the cylinder to move the load?
a. 24 PSIG b. 35 PSIG
c. 48 PSIG d. 85 PSIG
e. 109 PSIG  
3. If the angle between the cylinder rod and boom was 300 in the figure shown, what minimum theoretical pressure would there be in a cylinder with a 3 inch bore?
a. 35 PSIG b. 50 PSIG
c. 85 PSIG d. 170 PSIG
e. 185 PSIG  
4. An 1/4 Hp air motor is selected to operate at 1200 rev/min. Using various calculations and the graphs shown, what minimum air pressure listed would be required?
a. 30 PSIG b. 40 PSIG
c. 50 PSIG d. 60 PSIG
e. 70 PSIG
5. With Key Lock valve 9 in the actuated position, if Start valve 1 is depressed and held depressed, what would be the final position of Cylinders 10, 11, and 12 in the circuit shown?
a. Cylinder 10 extended, Cylinder 11 extended, Cylinder 12 extended. b. Cylinder 10 retracted, Cylinder 11 retracted, Cylinder 12 retracted.
c. Cylinder 10 extended, Cylinder 11 retracted, Cylinder 12 extended. d. Cylinder 10 retracted, Cylinder 11 extended, Cylinder 12 retracted.
e. Cylinder 10 extended, Cylinder 11 extended, Cylinder 12 retracted.
6. Referring to following circuit, which valve configuration would require the lowest pressure while the load is being lifted?
a. Remove the flow control at Valve B.. b. Reverse flow control check at Valve A.
c. Reverse flow control check at Valve B. d. Reverse flow control checks at Valves A and B.
e. Leave flow control Valves A and B as they are.
7. What minimum pipe size will deliver compressed air supplied at 80 PSIG to an air tool rated at 11 SCFM 100 ft away with a pressure drop of 10% or less?
a. 1/8 in. b. 1/4 in.
c. 3/8 in. d. 1/2 in.
e. 3/4 in.
8. Which one of the following components placed in Block 1 will have the least effect on operation of the air circuit in the figure shown?
a. Pressure regulator. b. Pressure gauge.
c. Lubricator. d. Slow-start valve.
e. Two way valve.
9. Which one of the following is an advantage of a single-acting, gravity returned, air cylinder over a double-acting air cylinder? a. Less expensive to operate. b. Smaller bore can be used.
c. Less noise during operation. d. Less wear than double acting.
e. Cycle rate is faster during operation.
10. Ignoring friction, what theoretical air pressure would be required to hold a load of 50 lb suspended, if the air cylinder has a 2 in. bore and 1 in. diameter rod?
a. 100 lb/in2. b. 135 lb/in2.
c. 175 lb/in2. d. 250 lb/in2.
e. 316 lb/in2.
11. If the crate shown weighs 40 lb and it takes 3 seconds to slide down the 10 ft ramp onto the main conveyor, what is the kinetic energy that must be absorbed by the shock absorber? Assume the load accelerates uniformly onto the conveyor.
a. 5.59 ft-lb. b. 27.63 ft-lb.
c. 60.64 ft-lb. d. 72.58 ft-lb.
e. 97.53 ft-lb.
12. The upstream stream pressure against an orifice is 125 PSIG. If the flow rate is 20 SCFM at 60 PSIG., what would happen if the downstream pressure drops to 40 PSIG? a. Increases slightly. b. Decreases slightly.
c. Stays the same. d. Doubles.
e. Is cut in half.
13. If a filter element with a 40 micron rating is replaced with an element that has an 80 micron rating, the: a. downstream pressure will drop. b. upstream pressure will increase.
c. downstream flow will drop. d. downstream flow will increase.
e. pressure and flow will remain the same.
14. If the circuit shown has a cylinder stroke of 14 inches, and the LRT had a range of 0 to -12 volts, what would be the approximate position of the cylinder rod when the control voltage shows 7 volts?
a. 2.5 in. retracted b. 6.8 in. extended
c. 8.2 in. extended d. 9.4 in. extended
e. 5.0 in. retracted
15. A 24 Volt D.C. solenoid rated at 6 Watts is wired in parallel with two resistance indicator lights that are wired in series with each other, one is at the solenoid, the other is at an operator's station. If each indicator light consumes 0.25 Watts, calculate the total resistance for the circuit. a. 76.7 Ohms. b. 88.6 Ohms.
c. 98.4 Ohms. d. 108.5 Ohms.
e. 125.6 Ohms.
16. A 20 inch stroke cylinder is equipped with a digital linear transducer which has a 8 bit output. What is the resolution? a. 0.019 inches. b. 0.039 inches.
c. 0.078 inches. d. 0.156 inches.
e. 0.312 inches.

PS-3 Pneumatic Specialist

Pre-Test Answers

OutcomeStudy Guide
Page No.
Quest. & Answer
Pgs. 36 & 37

Load and Motion Analysis

1. Solves horsepower formulas for Torque, speed and horsepower of an air motor connected through a reduction system to a conveyor 1 1. D
3. Computes bore diameter and pressure for a cylinder to move loads with a friction factor 8 2. C
System Analysis and Troubleshooting
6. Computes pressure in an air cylinder to support jib-boom loads 153. D
9. Uses manufacturer’s graphs and formulas to determine CFM requirements for an air motor 18 4. D
11. Predicts operation of a pneumatic system by tracing path of air flowing through circuits when various commands are given 24 5. A
System Design
15. Selects appropriate solution to control air cylinder velocity.32 6. B
18. Selects conductor sizes from application charts given pressure, flow delivery and line length 37 7. C
20. Selects components to achieve desired operation in a pneumatic circuit.408. B
Component Application
23. Recognizes advantages and disadvantages of single-acting and double-acting cylinders479. A
25. Computes cylinder bore diameter for a load attached to a cylinder through a system of levers and pulleys50 10. B
29. Calculates kinetic energy to stop a load with a shock absorber5911. B
33. Recognizes that the critical (sonic) velocity through an orifice is reached when the downstream pressure is 53% of the upstream pressure, and at the critical velocity, increasing p, will not increase air flow6512. C
Air Compression and Preparation
37. Identifies characteristics of air filter elements7213. D
41. Computes operational characteristics of a position feedback circuit8114. C
Control Components and Systems
45. Applies Ohm's Law and Kirchoff's Law to solenoid electrical circuits8715. B
49. Computes resolution for digital linear transducers from characteristics of signal input9316. C

Industrial Hydraulic Mechanic

Pre Test IHM-3 (402-403)

Introduction

Pre-tests are used to evaluate candidate preparedness for certification tests. Pre-tests provide insight into which areas require further study and whether the candidate should consider other study options, such as a Review Training Seminar (RTS).

Included in the Pre-test manual are three separate pre-tests for the Industrial Hydraulic Mechanic certification test. Please note, on this feature we are only providing IHM-3, the third Pre-test.

Candidates are encouraged to take a pre-test early in the study process. Pre-tests should be taken under timed conditions. A maximum of forty-five (45) minutes should be allotted for the following pre-test. This should be sufficient time to answer all twenty-five questions on the pre-test. The results of the pre-test will guide the candidate to one of four possible courses of action regarding tests preparation.

1. Take the test: Preparation is sufficient.

2. Study the material using the Study Manual.

3. Attend a Review Training Seminar (RTS): Preparation is good, but not sufficient to pass the test.

4. Participate in a formal Fluid Power course: A Review Training Session would not provide adequate preparation to pass the test.

Additional pre-tests should be taken after individual study or attendance at an RTS to further evaluate test readiness. In some instances, it may be desirable to take all three pre-tests at different times during the study process to better access preparedness and effectiveness of study.

Each question is referenced to a particular subject matter area of the study manual and of the test. After checking the answers, on page 53, the study manual should be referenced for areas where further study is needed. This should enable directed study in the areas where a deficiency exists.

Candidates should be advised that each pre-test covers only a representative sample of the types of questions found on the test. Due to the need to keep the pre-test brief, not all subject matter is covered on every pre-test. Thorough preparation for the certification test is strongly encouraged.

The experience of taking pre-tests under timed conditions should reduce test anxiety associated with the actual certification test. If necessary, candidates may wish to retake the pre-tests after some period of time has elapsed to recheck their knowledge.

Suggestions or comments for improvements of these pretests and other certification materials should be sent to: Fluid Power Society Education Institute, c/o FPS, 2433 North Mayfair Rd. Suite 111, Milwaukee, WI 53226, Phone: 414-257-0910

Industrial Hydraulic Mechanic
1. Contaminants added to a hydraulic system with make-up fluid are called: a. ingressed. b. built-in.
c. induced. d. internally generated.
e. escaped.
2. A 20 micron filter will: a. remove all particles over 20 microns in size. b. remove all metallic particles over 20 microns in size.
c. not work properly if the flow rate is over 20 gpm. d. remove silt.
e. only provide meaningful information if the beta ratio is known.
3. If the accumulator bladder becomes pinched in the foot valve: a. the bladder may rupture. b. all of the fluid will leak out of the bladder.
c. nitrogen will escape out the charging valve. d. the reservoir fluid level will drop.
e. all of the above
4. Fluid oxidation causes the: a. viscosity to increase. b. additives to deplete more rapidly.
c. oil to turn milky d. flash point to decrease.
e. viscosity index to increase.
5. Oxidized oil: a. can be salvaged if passed through the filter cart enough times. b. is not necessarily contaminated and can be reused.
c. has no outwardly visible indication that oxidation has occured. d. cannot be reclaimed by filtering.
e. can be reclaimed by mixing with new oil.
6. Which of the following should be done when changing to HWCFs? a. Oversize electric motor b. Change to HWCF compatible seals
c. Repaint inside of the reservoir d. Use charge filters
e. Install a fluid cooler
7. If the main stage piston of a pilot-operated relief valve binds, the cause is: a. varnish on the valve. b. contamination.
c. improperly aligned cover assembly. d. a failed bias spring.
e. excessive return line pressure.
8. A dash 12 (-12) hose which complies with SAE 100 R2 is required. The inside diameter of the hose is: a. 1/2 inch. b. 3/4 inch.
c. 12 millimeters. d. 12/100 inch.
e. Not enough information given to tell.
9. A 45 degree flare is associated with pressure: a. over 2000 psi. b. over 1000 psi.
c. between 1000 and 2000 psi. d. below 2000 psi.
e. below 1000 psi.
10. The spool of a directly actuated solenoid operated directional valve moves when activated manually, but the load doesn't move. The problem may be: a. solenoids are burned out. b. switching failure.
c. pilot orifice is plugged. d. solenoids are connected backwards.
e. pump is turned off.
11. The pressure setting of a balanced piston relief valve is determined by: a. the bias spring in the main stage. b. spring tension on the pilot poppet.
c. the size of the mainstage piston. d. the pressure capability of the pump.
e. the size of the orifice in the pilot stage.
12. A shaft seal installed with the lip facing out will: a. wear the shaft. b. blow out.
c. work fine. d. leak.
e. fail prematurely.
13. To reverse the direction of rotation of a balanced vane pump one must: a. turn the input shaft around. b. move the suction and pressure ports in the housing.
c. rotate the cartridge 90 degrees in the housing. d. put the cartridge in backwards.
e. flip the rotor/vane assembly and the cam ring.
14. The theoretical output flow of a 1.5 CID pump operating at 1750 rpm is: a. 26.25 gpm. b. 11.36 gpm.
c. 2.62 gpm. d. 1.14 gpm.
e. Not enough information given.
15. A static seal is defined as a seal: a. designed to dissipate static electricity. b. between two moving parts.
c. between one stationary and one moving part. d. held in place by gravity.
e. between two stationary parts.
16. Pressurized reservoirs: a. experience more condensation. b. help deliver fluid to the pump inlet.
c. must be mounted above the pump. d. use the same schematic symbol as a vented reservoir.
e. allow more contaminants into the fluid.
17. Which of the following is considered an additive? a. Pour point b. Base stock
c. Oxidation inhibitor d. Flash point
e. Viscosity
18. When a pump has angular misalignment, the pump: a. and motor shafts are still parallel. b. and motor shafts are touching.
c. and motor shafts are too far apart. d. and motor shafts don't align in any plane.
e. coupler will not go together.
19. A pump must produce 20 gpm at 1750 rpm. Its displacement is: a. 0.01 CID. b. 0.38 CID.
c. 2.64 CID. d. 4.62 CID.
e. 20.00 CID.
20. The open side of a V-packing must face: a. the gland. b. out.
c. the lowest pressure in the system. d. pressure.
e. the gland bolts.
21. Flush mounted cylinders: a. use an integral key. b. are fastened on two sides of the cap.
c. have a threaded cap and head. d. can't be mounted vertically.
e. align automatically when tightened.
22. To extend a single rod end hydraulic cylinder, the fluid acts on the: a. entire piston area. b. rod area.
c. rod end area (piston area minus rod area). d. combined rod and piston area.
e. circumference of the cylinder.
23. The theoretical flow for a 10 CID motor to turn at 1000 rpm is 43.3 gpm. When this flow is supplied to the motor, it turns at 940 rpm. The volumetric efficiency is: a. 106%. b. 94%.
c. 90%. d. 86%.
e. 80%.
24. A solenoid activated valve may not shift if the: a. solenoid voltage is too low. b. solenoid voltage is too high.
c. spool centering spring is too light. d. pressure is too high.
e. indicator lights are wired backwards.
25. How much flow will a 3/4 inch tube with a wall thickness of 0.095 inches carry at a velocity of 20 fps? a. 1.3 gpm b. 15.4 gpm
c. 20.0 gpm d. 26.0 gpm
e. 27.5 gpm

Industrial Hydraulic Mechanic

Pre-Test Answers
OutcomeStudy Guide
Page No.
Quest. & Answer
Pgs. 34 & 35
Preventative Maintenance
1.1 Understands how contaminants enter a hydraulic system.1 1. C
3.2 Understands how filters are evaluated and specified.6 2. E
5.2 Knows how an accumulator may fail.113. A
Fluid Filtration and Maintenance
7.1 Knows the causes and recognizes the signs of fluid failure. 17 4. B
9.1 Understands the application and purpose of a portable filter unit. 22 5. D
12.2 Understands how HWCF performs differently from petroleum based fluids in a hydraulic system. 28 6. B
Assemble Components
15.2 Recognizes valve problems and their causes. 36 7. C
17.2 Interprets hose specifications from recognized standards. 41 8. B
19.1 Knows how tubing assemblies seal to the fitting. 46 9. E
Field Repairs
20.2 Recognizes the symptoms of failures in a directional valve. 49 10. E
22.2 Understands what controls the pressure setting on a balanced piston relief valve. 53 11. B
23.2 Knows the proper procedure to install a shaft seal in a housing. 55 12. D
Major Repairs
26.2 Knows how to reverse the direction of rotation of a balanced vane pump. 63 13. E
27.2 Solves equations for flow, displacement, speed, and volumetric efficiency. 65 14. B
Minor Repairs
30.2 Distinguishes between static and dynamic seals. 72 15. E
33.2 Understands the differences between vented and pressurized reservoirs. 78 16. B
Replace Components and Fluids
34.2 Recognizes the importance of and reasons for additives. 80 17. C
35.2 Understands coupler alignment terminology and how to check for isalignment. 81 18. D
36.2 Calculates flow rate for a pump given displacement and speed nformation. 84 19. C
37.1 Knows how to install and adjust V-packings for proper operation. 86 20. D
41.1 Understands cylinder mounting terminology. 94 21. C
Troubleshooting
43.1 Understands how pressurized fluid causes cylinder movement. 99 22. A
45.2 Solves equations for displacement, speed, or volumetric efficiency. 103 23. B
47.1 Understands how solenoids activate a directional control valve. 108 24. A
48.1 Calculates fluid velocity in hydraulic lines. 110 25. B

Mobile Hydraulic Mechanic

Pre Test MHM-3 (401-403)

Introduction

Pre-tests are used to evaluate candidate preparedness for certification tests. Pre-tests may be either taken individually or in a group setting such as during a Review Training Session (RTS). As a part of an RTS, Pre-tests are used to allow the instructor to tailor the subject matter coverage to the needs of the audience. When a candidate is studying individually or in a small group, pre-tests provide insight into which areas require further study and whether the candidate should consider other study options, such as an RTS.

Included in the Pre-test manual are three separate pre-tests for the Mobile Hydraulic Mechanic certification test. Each pre-test has its own separate answer sheet which appears at the end of the pre-tests. Individual pre-tests are numbered MHM-1, MHM-2, and MHM-3. The answer key for all three pre-tests appears at the end of the manual.

Candidates are encouraged to take a pre-test early in the study process. Pre-tests should be taken under timed conditions. A maximum of 45 minutes should be allotted for each pre-test. This should be sufficient time to answer all 25 questions on the pre-test. The results of the pre-test will guide the candidate to one of four possible courses of action regarding tests preparation.

  1. Take the test: Preparation is sufficient.
  2. Study the material using the Study Manual.
  3. Attend a Review Training Session (RTS): Preparation is good, but not sufficient to pass the test.
  4. Participate in a formal (general) course: A Review Training Session would not provide adequate preparation to pass the test.
Additional pre-tests should be taken after individual study or attendance at an RTS to further evaluate test readiness. In some instances, it may be desirable to take all three pre-tests at different times during the study process to better access preparedness and effectiveness of study.

The answer sheets provided have been developed such that each question is referenced to a particular subject matter area of the study manual and of the test. The candidate is encouraged to fold the answer sheet vertically along the dotted line before taking the pre-test. This will eliminate any bias that may occur by having the appropriate outcome statement appear with the answers and more closely mimics actual test conditions. After checking the answers, the answer sheet may be opened to reveal the areas where further study is needed. This should enable directed study in the areas where a deficiency exists.

Candidates should be advised that each pre-test covers only a representative sample of the types of questions found on the test. Due to the need to keep the pre-test brief, not all subject matter is covered on every pre-test. Thorough preparation for the certification test is strongly encouraged.

The experience of taking pre-tests under timed conditions should reduce test anxiety associated with the actual certification test. If necessary, candidates may wish to retake the pre-tests after some period of time has elapsed to recheck their knowledge. Suggestions or comments for improvements of these pretests and other certification materials should be sent to: Fluid Power Society Education Institute, c/o FPS, 2433 N. Mayfair Rd. Suite 111, Milwaukee, WI 53226, 414-257-0910

Copyright 1994 by FPS - The International Organization for Fluid Power and Motion Control Professionals. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or used in any form without permission in writing from the publisher. Address information to FPS - The International Organization for Fluid Power and Motion Control Professionals, 2433 North Mayfair Road, Suite 111, Milwaukee, WI 53226.

Mobile Hydraulic Mechanic
Maintenance
1. If the pump is mounted below the reservoir (flooded inlet), a low fluid level can be identified by: a. overheating. b. loss of pressure.
c. noise from the pump. d. jerky action of a cylinder.
e. low fluid level on the dip stick.
2. What is the inside diameter of a -16 hose? a. 3/16 inch. b. 1/4 inch.
c. 1/2 inch. d. 3/4 inch.
e. 1 inch.
3. Installing a hose twisted as little as 10 degrees can shorten its service life as much as: a. 20%. b. 40%.
c. 50%. d. 75%.
e. 90%.
4. How would a maintenance person determine when to change a hydraulic filter that is not equipped with a pressure drop indicator? a. Cycle time. b. Fluid color.
c. Machine noise. d. Hours of operation.
e. Machine malfunction.
5. Which component must receive oil at operating temperature to set the system pressure relief valve accurately? a. Pump. b.Filter.
c. Cylinders. d. Auxiliary port.
e. Pressure relief valve.
6. Which pressure gauge in the figure shown could read the highest pressure?
a. 1 b. 2
c. 3 d. 4
e. 5
7. Which way should the lips face on a chevron V-packing installed on a double-acting cylinder piston? a. Toward the cap end. b. Toward the head end.
c. Toward each other. d. Away from each other.
e. Direction is unimportant.
8. A hydraulic system is brought to operating temperature before a sample is taken so that the oil: a. flows easier. b. changes composition.
c. circulates through the filter. d. releases heavy metal particles.
e. contains average contamination.
9. When hydraulic steel tube is being flared, as wall thickness increases, the tube has a tendency to: a. split. b. neck down.
c. thin out at the flare. d. slip in the holding block.
e. move the flare off-center.
10. Which part in figure shown prevents the tube from twisting?
a. Nut. b. Sleeve.
c. Cone fitting. d. Inverted nut fitting.
e. Inverted cone fitting.
11. Oxygen cannot be used to charge a hydraulic accumulator because it: a. is too expensive. b. contaminates the fluid.
c. could cause an explosion. d. will leak through the bladder.
e. has the wrong expansion characteristics.
Field Repairs
12. Which one of the following would cause excess dirt to build up on hoses connected to a stack valve? a. Seeping leak. b. Air entrapment.
c. Misaligned hose. d. High cycle rates.
e. Missing hose guard.
13. A hydraulic bucket loader circuit like that shown in the figure is equipped with a main pressure relief valve, bucket rollback circuit relief valve, return line filter with bypass check valve and boom circuit anti-cavitation valves. Which component could see the highest pressure?
a. Filter b. Pump.
c. Cylinders. d. Reservoir.
e. System relief valve.
14. Which one of the following is the safest procedure to bleed air from a hydraulic cylinder? a. Crack a pressurized fitting. b. Cycle a mounted cylinder under load.
c. Cycle unmounted cylinder with hoses connected. d. Operate the system in neutral until it warms up.
e. Cycle the cylinder by hand with the hoses connected.
Shop Repairs
15. What is the purpose for lowering the relief valve or pressure compensator setting when installing a new pump? a. Increase flow. b. Lower resistance to flow.
c. Test system at low pressure. d. Let air out of the reservoir.
e. Prevent air shocks from damaging the valves.
16. If tightening the through studs on a segmented directional control stack valve does not stop a leak between two segments, what should be done next? a. Replace the entire valve with a new one. b. Replace the leaking stack valve segments.
c. Replace all the seals between the segments. d. Replace the through studs with shorter bolts.
e. Isolate the leaking segments from the rest of the valve.
17. When the flow from a 42 gpm fixed displacement pump is restricted to 30 gpm, an accurate pressure gauge reads 700 psi. If rated relief valve pressure is 2200 psi, what does this indicate? a. Pressure relief valve is stuck open. b. Pressure relief valve is stuck closed.
c. Pressure relief valve is operating properly. d. Pressure relief valve is leaking across the seat.
e. Not enough is known at this point to make a determination.
18. Cylinder tie rod bolts are pre-stressed by: a. pressurizing the cylinder. b. heating the bolts in an oven.
c. work hardening them with a hammer. d. changing their position around the cylinder.
e. torquing the tie rod nuts to specifications.
Troubleshooting
19. Which one of the following would increase the pressure in the lift cylinder on the tow truck shown?
a. Heavier car. b. Shorter boom.
c. Bigger pump. d. Longer truck.
e. Smaller cylinder rod.
20. A combination pressure gauge and flow meter is installed in the pump pressure line to determine why a front end loader will not raise a loaded bucket. If the loader has a variable displacement pressure compensated pump and closed center system, what conditions would indicate that the pump is okay when the control valve is moved to raise the load? a. Low pressure, no flow. b. Low pressure, rated flow.
c. Working pressure, no flow. d. Working pressure, rated flow.
e. Relief valve pressure, rated flow.
21. In the bucket cylinder circuit of a front end loader, the position shown in the directional control valve would cause the bucket to:
a. float. b. dump.
c. regenerate. d. load the pump.
e. extend the cylinder.
22. Which one of the following would indicate that the piston seal on the boom cylinder circuit shown is by-passing?
a. Boom drifts up. b. Tell-tale leak at the cylinder rod.
c. Changing the counterbalance valve fixes the problem. d. Changing the counterbalance valve does not fix the problem.
e.With the machine off, shifting the control valve makes no difference.
23. Which one of the following could cause "no flow" from a good variable displacement hydraulic pump? a. Low operating rpm. b. By-passing actuator.
c. Leaking relief valve. d. Pump compensator setting.
e. High operating temperature.
24. A pounding noise felt in a hydraulic tubing manifold when the directional control valve is shifted is probably caused by: a. stuck cylinder b. operator error.
c. shock loading. d. sticking relief valve.
e. dry cylinder clevis pin.
25. If a hydraulic oil sample that has been standing overnight looks hazy when held up to the light, what should the mechanic do? a. Replace the oil. b. Replace the filter.
c. Replace the oil and filter. d. Check the relief valve pressure.
e. Check nothing. This is a normal condition.

Mobile Hydraulic Mechanic

Pre-Test Answers
OutcomeStudy Guide
Page No.
Quest. & Answer
Pgs. 42 & 43
Maintenance
2.1 Associates low and high fluid levels with system operation  3 1. E
4.1 Associates dash number with 1/16th inch I.D. sizes of hoses and fittings 7 2. E
5.1 Knows that twisting a hydraulic hose will result in reduced service life12 3. E
6.2 Knows when a hydraulic filter should be changed (for example, pressure drop indicator, service interval, preventive maintenance check, component failure, and when fluid is changed)16  4. D
8.2 Knows that pressure relief valve settings may be different when the system is cold than when the system is at operating temperature24  5. E
8.6 Knows where to install a pressure guage when checking relief valve settings24  6. C
13.1 Knows that the lip seal on a chevron packing gland faces the pressure35  7. D
14.2 Identifies the procedure for drawing a hydraulic fluid sample from the reservoir38  8. E
15.5 Associates common faults in flares (short or long flare, thick or thin flare, off center flare, burred flare, and necked tube), with make up procedure errors40  9. D
17.2 Identifies the parts of a tube assembly (nut, sleeve, length of flare, thickness of flare, diameter of the tube)4610. B
20.1 Identifies appropriate and unsafe gases to charge an accumulator53 11. C
Field Repairs
21.3 Knows to tighten, repair, or replace a hose assembly as required by the following conditions: leaking port connections, excess dirt buildup, missing clamps, guards, and shields 5612. A
23.1 Identifies relief valve setting from manufacturer specifications (from a paragraph describing operation of the machine) 6613. C
24.3 Knows the procedure to bleed a hydraulic cylinder safely6914. C
Shop Repairs
27.3 Knows that pressure relief valve spring force is released to permit low pressure flow to the reservoir from a new pump installation 7415. B
29.2 Knows that the seal between stack valve modules is made by tightening bolts through the sections evenly, compressing new sealing rings evenly inside at the through port recesses; and that when a segmented stack valve is separated, that all segment seals are disturbed and must be replaced 7816. C
32.1 Distinguishes between a pressure relief valve that is set incorrectly, and one that is faulty (leaks across the valve seat, or is not opening and closing)84 17. E
33.2 Knows that cylinder tie rod bolts are torqued to pre-stretch the tie rods8718. E
Troubleshooting
34.3 Knows that cylinder pressure is caused by the load resistance, but not by lack of pressure from the pump. (That is, the pump pumps fluid, not pressure)9119. A
35.2 Associates no or low pressure but maximum pump flow with open pressure relief valve, by-passing piston seal, stuck directional control valve, broken directional control valve spool, or other open circuit condition9520. D
36.3 Understands features of open center, closed center, tandem center, through center (power beyond), and motor center directional control valves10121. A
37.3 Distinguishes between cylinder piston seal leakage, load holding valve leakage, and directional control valve spool leakage10922. D
40.1 Associates no flow with faulty fixed displacement pump, or faulty variable displacement pump compensator 11723. E
41.2 Distinguishes between noise generated by the hydraulic system and noise generated by the mechanical system12024. C
45.1 Identifies causes of foaming (aeration), cavitation (high inlet vacuum), oxidation (overheating), and water (leakage or condensation) 12725. C

Industrial Hydraulic Technician

Pre Test IHT-3 (404-03)

Introduction

Pre-tests are used to evaluate candidate preparedness for certification tests. Pre-tests may either be taken individually or in a group setting such as during a Review Training Session (RTS). As a part of an RTS, pre-tests are used to allow the instructor to tailor the subject matter coverage to the needs of the audience. When a candidate is studying individually or in a small group, pre-tests provide insight into which areas require further study and whether the candidate should consider other study options, such as an RTS.

Included in this manual are three separate pre-tests for the Industrial Hydraulic Technician Certification test. Each pre-test has its own separate answer sheet which appears at the end of the pre-tests. Individual pre-tests are numbered IHT-1, IHT-2, and IHT-3. The answer key for all three pre-tests appears at the end of the manual.

Candidates are encouraged to take a pre-test early in the study process. Pre-tests should be taken under timed conditions. A maximum of forty-five minutes should be allotted for each pre-test. This should be sufficient time to answer all twenty-five questions on the pre-test. The results of the pre-test will guide the candidate to one of four possible courses of action regarding tests preparation.

  1. Take the test: Preparation is sufficient.
  2. Study the material using the Study Manual.
  3. Attend a Review Training Session (RTS): Preparation is good, but not sufficient to pass the test.
  4. Participate in a formal (general) course: A Review Training Session would not provide adequate preparation to pass the test.
Additional pre-tests should be taken after individual study or attendance at an RTS to further evaluate test readiness. In some instances, it may be desirable to take all three pre-tests at different times during the study process to better access preparedness and effectiveness of study.

The answer sheets provided have been developed such that each question is referenced to a particular subject matter area of the study manual and of the test. The candidate is encouraged to fold the answer sheet vertically along the dotted line before taking the pre-test. This will eliminate any bias that may occur by having the appropriate outcome statement appear with the answers and more closely mimics actual test conditions. After checking the answers, the answer sheet may be opened to reveal the areas where further study is needed. This should enable directed study in the areas where a deficiency exists.

Candidates should be advised that each pre-test covers only a representative sample of the types of questions found on the test. Due to the need to keep the pre-test brief, not all subject matter is covered on every pre-test. Thorough preparation for the Certification test is strongly encouraged.

The experience of taking pre-tests under timed conditions should reduce test anxiety associated with the actual certification test. If necessary, candidates may wish to retake the pre-tests after some period of time has elapsed to recheck their knowledge. Suggestions or comments for improvements of these pre-tests and other certification materials should be sent to: Fluid Power Society Education Institute, c/o FPS, 2433 N. Mayfair Rd. Suite 111, Milwaukee, WI 53226, 414-257-0910.

Industrial Hydraulic Technician
Hydraulic Symbols
1. How many flow paths does the directional control valve shown have?
a. Three. b. Four.
c. Five. d. Six.
e. Seven.
2. A compound, balanced piston (or spool) pressure relief valve is balanced by: a. flow. b. stroke.
c. pressure. d. spring force.
e. spool size.
3. What is adjusted to regulate flow in the pressure compensated, by-pass type, flow control valve illustrated by the symbols shown?
a. Flow orifice. b. Relief to drain.
c. Compensator spring. d. Pilot pressure to compensator.
e. Vent pressure to compensator.
Statics
4. A pump inlet is located 24 inches above the surface of a hydraulic fluid with a specific gravity of 0.90. How many inches of Hg would be required to lift the fluid to the inlet? a. 1.59 inches of Hg. b. 1.79 inches of Hg.
c. 1.96 inches of Hg. d. 2.59 inches of Hg.
e. 3.01 inches of Hg.
5. If only the piston seal in the figure shown were to leak, theoretically the cylinder rod would:
a. lock up. completely. b. drift in. completely.
c. retract completely. d. leak fluid.
e. remain stationary.
Components
6. A 2 inch bore single-end-rod hydraulic cylinder that receives hydraulic fluid at 1.75 gpm extends 12 inches in 6 seconds. How much fluid is by-passing the piston? a. 0.05 gpm. b. 0.12 gpm.
c. 0.95 gpm. d. 1.15 gpm.
e. 1.63 gpm.
7.Which one of the following valves uses a check to isolate part of the circuit? a. Brake. b. Unloading.
c. Counterbalance. d. Pressure relief.
e. Pressure reducing.
8. Which load holding valve is used to lock a cylinder in place so it will hold position without drift? a. Brake. b. Sequence.
c. Unloading. d. Pilot check.
e. Counterbalance.
9. A pressure compensated flow control valve delivers 8 gpm with a pressure drop across the main metering orifice of 75 psi. If the downstream pressure changes from 1500 to 1800 psi, what will be the pressure drop across the main metering orifice? a. 75 psi. b. 90 psi.
c. 105 psi. d. 150 psi.
e. 300 psi.
10. In a flow control valve, what is the difference between a bi-metallic temperature compensator and a sharp edged orifice temperature compensator? a. Bi-metallic element heats the fluid. b. Viscosity changes affect orifices less.
c. Bi-metallic element is more accurate. d. Sharp edged orifice has more friction.
e. Sharp edged orifice has less turbulence..
11. Which of the following would most likely cause thermal lock in a double-acting cylinder held at mid-stroke? a. Sequence valves in each line. b. Closed center control valve spool.
c. Counterbalance valves in each line. d. P to T, and A to B center spool.
e. Pilot operated checks in each line.
12. A pump draws a vacuum of 7 inches of Hg. What is the equivalent of this pressure in psia? a. 7.9 psia. b.11.3 psia.
c. 14.7 psia. d. 18.7 psia.
e. 26.5 psia.
13. 13. A separate pilot drain line should be used on an open center directional control valve when there is: a. a by-pass spring in the return line. b. low back pressure in the return line.
c. a pressure check valve in the return line. d. more than one directional valve in the system.
e. no drain connection available in the return line.
14. An accumulator that holds 3 gallons of usable oil discharges in 25 seconds. What is the average flow rate: a. 2.5 gpm. b. 3.6 gpm.
c. 7.2 gpm. d. 8.6 gpm.
e. 9.8 gpm.
Controls
15. A limit switch is used to: a. start the control circuit. b. close the relay contacts.
c. signal the end of an event. d. move the solenoid armature.
e. indicate when the circuit is energized.
16. Which electrical element in the ladder diagram shown begins the sequence to retract the cylinder rod?
a. Push button switch. b. Control relay 2.
c. Limit switch 2. d. Solenoid 1.
e. Solenoid 2.
17. What is the resistance of a 32 volt DC solenoid that has a holding current of 3.5 amperes? a. 0.11 Ohms. b. 2.71 Ohms.
c. 3.50 Ohms. d. 9.14 Ohms.
e. 94.81 Ohms.
Basic Circuits
18. Which of the following valves is used to unload a fixed displacement pump? a. Brake. b. Sequence.
c. Pressure relief. d. Pressure reducing.
e. Flow control.
19. Compared to meter-out and bleed-off cylinder circuits, a meter in circuit will have the highest: a. accuracy. b. system efficiency.
c. piston seal leakage. d. resistance to overrunning loads.
e. pump utilization to other branch circuits.
20. In the circuit shown, a hydraulic cylinder with a 2-1/2 inch diameter bore and 1-3/4 inch rod extends under regeneration at a pressure of 1500 psi. What is the maximum clamping force?
a. 664 lbs. b. 3608 lbs.
c. 3750 lbs. d. 7363 lbs.
e. 9847 lbs.
21. In general, which one of the following circuits generates the least wasted heat? a. Fixed displacement, relief valve. b. Variable displacement, relief valve.
c. Fixed displacement, load sensing. d. Variable displacement, load sensing.
e. Variable displacement, pressure compensated.
22. The purpose of the pressure reducing valve in the circuit shown is to:
a. limit the force of the clamp cylinder. b. eliminate reverse flow check valves.
c. limit the force of the work cylinder. d.assure minimum pressure on the clamp cylinder.
e. eliminate three position directional control valves.
Troubleshooting
23. A shorted directional control valve solenoid coil: a. has a broken wire. b. has a pinched wire.
c. has a high resistance. d. has an electrical leak.
e. has an electrical lead missing.
24. What would cause a cylinder connected to a closed center directional control valve like that shown, to creep out moving a load?
a. Fluid leak at the rod end. b. Restricted return line.
c. Relief valve set too high. d. Valve spool leak to reservoir.
e. Clearance flow in the control valve.
25. After assembly, the hydraulic circuit shown extends and retracts, but slower than at rated velocity. Which check valve could be installed backward (reversed)?
a. A b. B
c. C d. D
e. E

Industrial Hydraulic Technician

Pre-Test Answers

OutcomeStudy Guide
Page No.
Answers
to Questions
Pgs. 34 & 35
Hydraulic Symbols
3. Identifies directional control valve symbols4 1. B
5. Identifies hydraulic pressure control valves from detailed symbols72. C
8. Associates detailed flow control symbols with component function113. A
Statics
11. Understands the relationship between height of a liquid and gauge pressure reading in inches of Hg.14 4. A
15. Understands that cylinder movement is caused by sufficient pressure against a movable area.20 5. E
Components
18. Understands how hydraulic flow rate and cylinder rod velocity are used to determine volumetric efficiency25 6. B
19. Distinguishes between operation of a pressure relief, pressure reducing, unloading, sequence, counterbalance, and brake valves 26 7. B
20. Understands that load holding valves are required on truck mounted aerial lift cylinders34 8. D
22. Understands that hydraulic pressure compensated flow control valves maintain constant actuator speed regardless of load379. A
24. Understands that flow through a sharp edge orifice is less affected by change in fluid temperature than other types of restrictions 3710. B
27. Understands that thermal expansion of fluid can cause high pressure and thermal lock in hydraulic cylinders equipped with pilot operated check valves4511. E
30. Interprets hydraulic pump specifications from performance curves4812. B
32. Understands that pilot drains on hydraulic directional control valves should have separate lines where the system experiences high return line pressure5313. C
34. Calculates fill times, oil capacities, and charge pressures for hydro-pneumatic accumulators5614. C
Controls
39. Understands the basics of hydraulic system electrical controls6215. C
43. Understands interaction between ladder diagram and directional control valve shifting mechanism6516. C
49. Understands the relationship given by Ohm's law7017. D
Basic Circuits
53. Understands that the pressure relief valve diverts unneeded flow to reservoir when a fixed displacement pump is used 7418. C
56. Recognizes the characteristics of meter-in, meter-out, and bleed-off circuits7919. E
62. Calculates the cylinder rod force, cylinder rod velocity, and flow rate in various lines in a hydraulic regenerative cylinder circuit8220. D
66. Understands that hydraulic load sensing circuits with variable displacement, pressure compensated pumps maintain pressure at approximate load pressure8721. D
71. Identifies circuit components that control (maintain and limit) clamping cylinder pressure in a sequence pressure reducing circuit9222. A
Troubleshooting
74. Understands the basics of troubleshooting hydraulic system electrical controls9523. D
77. Understands that a single-end-rod hydraulic cylinder may drift out if the load can be moved by half the pressure at the pressure port, applied to the cylinder in regeneration9924. E
81. Analyzes hydraulic systems 10325. A

Pneumatic Mechanic

Pre Test PM-3 (403-03)

Introduction

Pre-tests are used to evaluate candidate preparedness for certification tests. Pre-tests provide insight into which areas require further study and whether the candidate should consider other study options, such as a Review Training Seminar (RTS).

Included in the Pre-test manual are three separate pre-tests for the Pneumatic Mechanic certification test. Please note, in the feature we are only providing PM-3, the third Pre-test.

Candidates are encouraged to take a pre-test early in the study process. Pre-tests should be taken under timed conditions. A maximum of forty-five (45) minutes should be allotted for the following pre-test. This should be sufficient time to answer all twenty-five questions on the pre-test. The results of the pre-test will guide the candidate to one of four possible courses of action regarding tests preparation.

1. Take the test: Preparation is sufficient.

2. Study the material using the Study Manual.

3. Attend a Review Training Seminar (RTS): Preparation is good, but not sufficient to pass the test.

4. Participate in a formal Fluid Power course: A Review Training Session would not provide adequate preparation to pass the test.

Additional pre-tests should be taken after individual study or attendance at an RTS to further evaluate test readiness. In some instances, it may be desirable to take all three pre-tests at different times during the study process to better access preparedness and effectiveness of study.

Each question is referenced to a particular subject matter area of the study manual and of the test. After checking the answers, on page 53, the study manual should be referenced for areas where further study is needed. This should enable directed study in the areas where a deficiency exists.

Candidates should be advised that each pre-test covers only a representative sample of the types of questions found on the test. Due to the need to keep the pre-test brief, not all subject matter is covered on every pre-test. Thorough preparation for the certification test is strongly encouraged.

The experience of taking pre-tests under timed conditions should reduce test anxiety associated with the actual certification test. If necessary, candidates may wish to retake the pre-tests after some period of time has elapsed to recheck their knowledge.

Suggestions or comments for improvements of these pretests and other certification materials should be sent to: Fluid Power Society Education Institute, c/o FPS, 2433 North Mayfair Rd. Suite 111, Milwaukee, WI 53226, Phone: 414-257-0910

Pneumatic Mechanic
1. In industrial applications, what is the normal filter size range? a. 0.1 - 1 micron b. 5 - 60 microns
c. 40 - 59 microns d. 60 - 100 microns
e. 100 - 400 microns
2.  Air pressure regulators determine the pressure: a. at the compressor. b. at the actuator.
c. in the receiver. d. in the aftercooler.
e. upstream of the regulator.
3. Which part of the lubricator causes the pressure drop? a. Oil tube b. Needle valve
c. Flow guide d. Venturi
e. Bowl pressurizing valve
4. A detergent in the oil will: a. force contaminants to settle out of the oil. b. hold contaminants in suspension.
c. clean the oil filter. d. cause the compressor to use more oil.
e. extend the oil change interval.
5. The "grade number" of a bolt: a. indicates whether it has coarse or fine threads. b. is an indication of hardness.
c. is the proper torque value in foot-pounds. d. distinguishes between metric and non-metric bolts.
e. predicts how many times the bolt may be reused without failure.
6. A non-venting regulator is to be reset from a higher pressure to a lower pressure. To properly set the regulator: a. reduce the upstream pressure first. b. it will be necessary to vent downstream air.
c. simply back the adjuster screw out. d. turn the adjuster screw in.
e. shut off the air supply.
7. Which port would be fitted with a restrictor to achieve meter-in flow control for both extension and retraction of a double acting cylinder? a. Port A (#2) b. Port B (#4)
c. Port P (#1) d. Port EA (#3)
e. Port EB (#5)
8. An air motor which runs on unconditioned air will: a. run too fast. b. run too slow.
c. not run at all. d. experience premature wear.
e. blow up.
9. Piston cup seals and rod seals are examples of what type of seal? a. static b. dynamic
c. rolling d. leather
e. low pressure
10. A vacuum of 10 in. Hg. is applied to a 3" vacuum cup. This cup will be able to lift: a. 3.0 pounds. b. 7.1 pounds.
c. 10.0 pounds. d. 30.0 pounds.
e. 34.8 pounds
11. V-Belts transmit power to/from pulleys: a. at the larger pulley only. b. along the sides of the belt.
c. at the top edge of the belt. d. at the bottom of the belt.
e. along the small pulley only.
12. A pneumatic system requires 10 cfm, compressed at 100 psig. How much free air is required? a. 10 cfm b. 78 cfm
c. 100 cfm d. 780 cfm
e. 1000 cfm
13. A control which holds the intake valve of a piston compressor open is an example of which control? a. On/off b. Start/stop
c. Constant speed d. Intake valve
e. Dual
14. Impact wrench speed is controlled by the: a. pressure at inlet. b. size of air line.
c. pressure at the regulator. d. air flow rate.
e. reversing valve.
15. An air receiver has an 18" diameter and measures 48" long. The volume is: a. 864 cubic inches b. 7.07 cubic feet
c. 52.8 cubic feet d. 864 gallons
e. 7.07 gallons
16. An unloader: a. holds the exhaust valve open. b. holds the intake valve open.
c. holds both valves open. d. blocks off the compressor outlet.
e. shuts off the motor.
17. The purpose for center-punching a broken bolt before drilling is to: a. loosen the threads. b. lock the bolt in place.
c. prevent the drill from slipping to one side. d. make the bolt easier to drill.
e. crack the bolt.
18. Flare fitting assemblies which are not lubricated prior to assembly may: a. twist and damage the tube when tightened. b. be overtorqued.
c. not go together. d. work loose after a few hours.
e. not dissipate heat efficiently.
19. Lubricating the nipple of a clamp type fitting: a. is not necessary. b. is only done when large hose is used.
c. will damage the hose. d. permits assembly without damaging the hose.
e. is best done with gasket sealer.
20. Air valves with 1/2 inch ports: a. all have the same air flow rating. b. have a higher pressure drop than 3/8 inch valves.
c. could have Cvs falling over a wide range. d. are too small for cylinders with 3/4 inch ports.
e. are usually made of steel.
21. Which is the most common symbol system used to show information regarding component and circuit operation? a. Pictorial drawings b. Cutaway
c. Graphic symbols d. Manufacturing prints
e. Isometric diagram
22. Copper tubing: a. is not suitable for air lines. b. corrodes if water is present in the air.
c. can be bent to fit the machine. d. is threaded using a straight (parallel) thread.
e. won't seal above 50 psi.
23. With no flow controls and ignoring friction, an air cylinder with a 3" bore and 1 inch rod which must move 353 pounds on extension and 314 pounds on retraction will a. extend and retract at the same speed. b. extend faster than it will retract.
c. retract faster than it will extend. d. extend but never retract.
e. retract but never extend.
24. A "humming" AC solenoid may indicate that the: a. solenoid is shorted. b. solenoid is open.
c. valve has not shifted completely. d. DC power is being sent to an AC solenoid.
e. valve is being shifted too rapidly.
25. Air motors may run too slowly if: a. the filter is plugged. b. the muffler frosts over.
c. the air line is damaged. d. the vanes are stuck in their slots.
e. all of the above.

Pre-Test Answer Sheet

Pneumatic Mechanic

Pre-Test Answers

OutcomeStudy Guide
Page No.
Quest. & Answer
Pgs. 24 & 25
Preventive Maintenance
1.4 Knows how pneumatic filters are rated and what pore sizes are appropriate1 1. C
2.1 Knows the purpose of a pressure regulator5 2. B
3.1 Understands how an air lubricator works73. D
4.1 Understands fluid properties and how they affect the suitability of an oil for use in a compressor9 4. B
5.1 Understands the concept of torque and solves basic mathematical problems related to torque ;11 5. B
Assemble Components
6.2 Understands the operation of venting and non-venting regulators16 6. B
7.2 Correctly interprets information from a schematic symbol of a directional control valve19 7. C
8.1 Understands the reasons why air motors must operate on conditioned air20 8. D
Field Repairs
9.4 Understands how to install seals in a pneumatic cylinder259. B
9.2 Solves equations involving vacuum, area, and force2510. E
10.1 Knows how to check and adjust compressor drive belts3011. B
11.4 Understands the various compressor controls and their application3212. B
11.1 Converts air flow requirements from compressed conditions to atmospheric conditions 3213. C
Major Repairs
13.2 Recognizes the effects of air pressure on wrench torque and air flow on wrench speed 4014. D
Minor Repairs
14.2 Calculates the volume of an air receiver4315. B
15.1 Understands the operation of a concentric ring valve airhead4516. B
16.1 Knows the precedure for using an EZout4817. C
17.2 Knows how to remove and reinstall intercooler tubes to minimize the risk of tube damage4918. A
18.1 Knows the procedure to correctly assemble a clamp-type fitting on a hose 5119. D
Replace Components
19.1 Understands the specifications available from a component model number5320. C
20.1 Distinguishes between graphic, pictorial, and cutaway drawings5521. C
21.1 Knows the advantages and disadvantages of using steel pipe, plastic pipe, copper tubing, hose, or manifolds for conveyance of compressed air 5722. C
Troubleshooting
22.1 Calculates cylinder area and force capability6123. C
23.1 Recognizes symptoms of air valve failures and their causes6424. C
24.1 Knows the causes of air motor failure6725. E

Pneumatic Technician

Pre Test PT-3 Pre-Test Answer Sheet (405-03)

Introduction

Pre-tests are used to evaluate candidate preparedness for certification tests. Pre-tests may either be taken individually or in a group setting such as during a Review Training Session (RTS). As a part of an RTS, pre-tests are used to allow the instructor to tailor the subject matter coverage to the needs of the audience. When a candidate is studying individually or in a small group, pre-tests provide insight into which areas require further study and whether the candidate should consider other study options, such as an RTS.

Included in this manual are three separate pre-tests for the Pneumatic Technician Certification test. Each pre-test has its own separate answer sheet which appears at the end of the pre-tests. Individual pre-tests are numbered PT-1, PT-2, and PT-3. The answer key for all three pre-tests appears at the end of the manual.

Candidates are encouraged to take a pre-test early in the study process. Pre-tests should be taken under timed conditions. A maximum of forty-five minutes should be allotted for each pre-test. This should be sufficient time to answer all twenty-five questions on the pre-test. The results of the pre-test will guide the candidate to one of four possible courses of action regarding tests preparation.

  1. Take the test: Preparation is sufficient.
  2. Study the material using the Study Manual.
  3. Attend a Review Training Session (RTS): Preparation is good, but not sufficient to pass the test.
  4. Participate in a formal (general) course: A Review Training Session would not provide adequate preparation to pass the test.
Additional pre-tests should be taken after individual study or attendance at an RTS to further evaluate test readiness. In some instances, it may be desirable to take all three pre-tests at different times during the study process to better access preparedness and effectiveness of study.

The answer sheets provided have been developed such that each question is referenced to a particular subject matter area of the study manual and of the test. The candidate is encouraged to fold the answer sheet vertically along the dotted line before taking the pre-test. This will eliminate any bias that may occur by having the appropriate outcome statement appear with the answers and more closely mimics actual test conditions. After checking the answers, the answer sheet may be opened to reveal the areas where further study is needed. This should enable directed study in the areas where a deficiency exists.

Candidates should be advised that each pre-test covers only a representative sample of the types of questions found on the test. Due to the need to keep the pre-test brief, not all subject matter is covered on every pre-test. Thorough preparation for the Certification test is strongly encouraged.

The experience of taking pre-tests under timed conditions should reduce test anxiety associated with the actual certification test. If necessary, candidates may wish to retake the pre-tests after some period of time has elapsed to recheck their knowledge. Suggestions or comments for improvements of these pre-tests and other certification materials should be sent to: Fluid Power Society Education Institute, c/o FPS, 2433 N. Mayfair Rd. Suite 111, Milwaukee, WI 53226, 414-257-0910.

Pneumatic Technician
Pneumatic Symbols
1. Which center position would allow a reversible air motor to coast in the center position? a. Open center. b. Closed center.
c. Tandem center. d. Exhaust center.
e. Pressure center.
2. A three-position, blocked center, directional control air valve connects: a. two cylinder ports to both exhaust ports. b. one pressure port to both exhaust ports.
c. two cylinder ports to one exhaust port. d. one pressure port to both cylinder ports.
e. all pressure and cylinder ports are closed.
3. Where is the water separator located in an FRL unit? a. Before the filter. b. After the filter.
c. After the regulator. d. After the lubricator.
e. At the drain tap.
4. Excess flow control valves are designed to reduce: a. costs. b. injuries.
c. air consumption. d. air hose length.
e. air line pressure drop.
Gas Laws
5. A pressure gauge reads 110 psi at sea level. What is the absolute pressure in psia? a. 85.3 psia. b. 95.3 psia.
c. 104.7 psia. d. 110.7 psia.
e. 124.7 psia.
6. A compressor delivers 10 cfm for 2 minutes to a 50 gallon receiver. Assuming no losses, what is the receiver psi gauge pressure at room temperature? a. 20 psi. b. 29 psi.
c. 44 psi. d. 59 psi.
e. 87 psi.
7. From the graph shown, approximately how much moisture would 2000 cubic feet of free air contain at 90°F at its dew point?
a. 3.16 lb. b. 4.26 lb.
c. 5.70 lb. d. 7.52 lb.
e. 9.82 lb.
8.A single-stage piston compressor develops 100 psi. Assuming 100% volumetric efficiency, what is the compression ratio of the compressor? a. 5.8 to 1. b. 6.8 to 1.
c. 7.8 to 1. d. 8.8 to 1.
e. 9.82 to 1.
9. How many inches of Mercury vacuum would be required to give a 3 inch diameter vacuum pad application a lifting force of 50 pounds? a. 11.5 inches. b. 14.4 inches.
c. 15.2 inches. d. 17.3 inches.
e. 19.6 inches.
Maintenance
10. Which method of removing the moisture from compressed air has the highest operating cost? a. Adsorption. b. Absorption.
c. Refrigeration. d. Silica gel attachment.
e. Water separation sieves.
Components
11. An air compressor that operates intermittently delivers 25 cfm at 115 psi. If receiver size equals three times compressor delivery, what gallon size is the receiver? a. 21.2 gal. b. 36.4 gal.
c. 48.8 gal. d. 63.6 gal.
e. 75.0 gal.
12. A flow control valve with a Cv rating of 0.2 will flow 7 scfm at 80 psi with a 10 psi pressure drop. What Cv rating would flow 14 scfm under the same conditions? a. 0.1. b. 0.2.
c. 0.3. d. 0.4.
e. 0.5.
13. 13. If the pressure at the receiver is 125 psi, and the pressure at the air tool is 110 psi, what would the maximum distance between the receiver and air tool be to keep the pressure drop to 0.1 psi/foot? a. 10 ft. b. 15 ft.
c. 75 ft. d. 100 ft.
e. 150 ft.
14. Which of the following statements is true for the 'two pressure' valve shown?
a. The output signal requires one input signal. b. The lowest pressure input flows to the outlet.
c. The first pressure input flows to the outlet. d. The valve works the same as a shuttle valve.
e. The valve checks reverse flow.
15. A four-way directional control valve plumbed as a five-way directional control valve, as shown, has:
a. two exhaust ports. b. one pressure port.
c. one cylinder port. d. two pressure ports.
e. three exhaust ports.
Controls
16. What kind of logic signal will the circuit shown produce?
a. AND. b. OR.
c. NOT. d. YES.
e. NAND.
17. Which electrical element in the ladder diagram shown signals the cylinder to retract?
a. Solenoid 2.. b. Limit switch 2.
c. Control relay 1. d. Control relay 2.
e. Push button switch.
18. Which of the following written motion sequences matches the motion diagram shown?
a. B+, A-, B-, A+ b. B-, A+, A+, B+
c. B-, B-, B+, A+ d. B+, A+, A-, B-
e. B-, A+, B+, A-
19. Which electrical component listed protects a switch against arcing? a. Coil. b. Capacitor.
c. Relay contact. d. Pressure switch.
e. Circuit breaker.
20. If the coil shading ring burns out, an AC directional control valve solenoid will: a. fail to shift at all. b. make a louder hum.
c. cause the plunger to seize. d. burn out the solenoid winding.
e. shift at a lower air line pressure.
Basic Circuits
21. The purpose for valve V2 in the circuit shown is to:
a. reverse cylinder direction. b. regulate return air pressure.
c. lock the cylinder into position. d. vent return air to the cylinder.
e. relieve over pressure from the cylinder.
22. Reversing the free-flow checks in both flow controls would cause the circuit shown to:
a. meter-in, extension only. b. meter-out, retraction only.
c. meter-in, both directions. d. meter-out, both directions.
e. have no effect in either direction.
23. Which valve in the circuit shown is operator dependent?
a. 1. b. 2.
c. 3. d. 4.
e. 5.
Troubleshooting
24. The air cylinder shown should extend and retract, moving a constant load, when the start valve is actuated and released. Instead, the cylinder stalls while retracting and air can be heard escaping from the exhaust port on the directional control valve. What is the likely cause of the problem?
a. binding load. b. low air pressure.
c. stuck start valve. d. blown piston seal.
e. stuck directional control valve.
25. Which valve in the circuit shown controls the initial extension speed of the cylinder rod?
a. 1. b. 2.
c. 3. d. 4.
e. 5.

Pneumatic Technician

Pre-Test Answers

OutcomeStudy Guide
Page No.
Quest. & Answer
Pgs. 52 & 53
Pneumatic Symbols
3. Recognizes that blocked center, pressure center, and exhaust center are the most common center conditions for pneumatic control valves3 1. D
4. Distinguishes between pneumatic blocked center, pressure center, and exhaust center three-position directional control power valve symbols32. E
7. Recognizes component operation from graphic symbol73. A
8. Recognizes purpose and function of a pneumatic excess flow control valve (OSHA Regulation for construction. Part 1926.302, April 6, 197910 4. B
Gas Laws
10. Converts pressure measurement between psi gauge and psia (absolute)11 5. E
11. Understands relationships given by Boyle's Law12 6. B
14. Determines the moisture content of air from pressure/temperature graphs15 7. B
16. Understands the relationship between gauge pressure and compression ratio18 8. C
18. Determines the force and area relationships for vacuum pad applications209. B
Maintenance
22. Associates methods of removing moisture from compressed air with operating costs2410. A
Components
26. Computes air receiver capacity from constant (K), cfm delivery from the compressor, working pressure and ambient conditions 2811. D
30. Understands that the flow capacity of directional control valves is in direct proportion to the Cv factor3212. D
33. Calculates pressure drop in air line3613. E
36. Associates pneumatic valve type with operation3914. B
39. Distinguishes between four-way and five-way plumbing of a four-way directional control valve4315. D
Controls
43. Recognizes various air logic circuits4716. C
47. Understands interaction between ladder diagram and directional control valve shifting mechanism5417. B
50. Matches cylinder motion sequences with motion diagrams 5818. D
53. Identifies function of electrical components in a circuit6219. B
56. Understands that a solenoid shading coil sets up an auxiliary magnetic attraction which is out of phase with the main coil such that it helps to hold the armature as the main magnetic coil attraction drops to zero6320. B
Basic Circuits
60. Analyzes component operation in basic air circuits6921. A
63. Understands pneumatic air speed regulation circuits7222. C
65. Distinguishes between will, time, pressure sequence, and programmed pneumatic circuit control systems76 23. A
Troubleshooting
68. Associates air cylinder failure to extend under load, but will retract under load, with directional control valve failure, since the directional control valve is in the cylinder return position 8224. D
71. Analyzes pneumatic circuits8725. A

Hydraulic Specialist

Pre Test Sample 

Introduction

The new Hydraulic Specialist test is under development. Since the Pre Tests are derived  from the knowledge statements and outcomes of the real test, the official Pre Tests won't be available until the test is. 

However, we've prepared a 15 question Pre Test that will help you define your strengths and weaknesses in state of the art hydraulics. 

Pre-tests are used to evaluate candidate preparedness for certification tests. Pre-tests may either be taken individually or in a group setting such as during a Review Training Session (RTS). As a part of an RTS, pre-tests are used to allow the instructor to tailor the subject matter coverage to the needs of the audience. When a candidate is studying individually or in a small group, pre-tests provide insight into which areas require further study and whether the candidate should consider other study options, such as an RTS.

Included in this manual are three separate pre-tests for the Hydraulic Specialist Certification test. Each pre-test has its own separate answer sheet which appears at the end of the pre-tests. Individual pre-tests are numbered HS-1, HS-2, and HS-3. The answer key for all three pre-tests appears at the end of the manual.

Candidates are encouraged to take a pre-test early in the study process. Pre-tests should be taken under timed conditions. A maximum of forty-five minutes should be allotted for each pre-test. This should be sufficient time to answer all fifteen questions on the pre-test. The results of the pre-test will guide the candidate to one of four possible courses of action regarding tests preparation.

1. Take the test: Preparation is sufficient.

2. Study the material using the Study Manual.

3. Attend a Review Training Session (RTS): Preparation is good, but not sufficient to pass the test.

4. Participate in a formal (general) course: A Review Training Session would not provide adequate preparation to pass the test.

Additional pre-tests should be taken after individual study or attendance at an RTS to further evaluate test readiness. In some instances, it may be desirable to take all three pre-tests at different times during the study process to better access preparedness and effectiveness of study.

The answer sheets provided have been developed such that each question is referenced to a particular subject matter area of the study manual and of the test. The candidate is encouraged to fold the answer sheet vertically along the dotted line before taking the pre-test. This will eliminate any bias that may occur by having the appropriate outcome statement appear with the answers and more closely mimics actual test conditions. After checking the answers, the answer sheet may be opened to reveal the areas where further study is needed. This should enable directed study in the areas where a deficiency exists.

Candidates should be advised that each pre-test covers only a representative sample of the types of questions found on the test. Due to the need to keep the pre-test brief, not all subject matter is covered on every pre-test. Thorough preparation for the Certification test is strongly encouraged.

The experience of taking pre-tests under timed conditions should reduce test anxiety associated with the actual certification test. If necessary, candidates may wish to retake the pre-tests after some period of time has elapsed to recheck their knowledge.

Suggestions or comments for improvements of these pre-tests and other certification materials should be sent to: Fluid Power Society Education Institute, c/o FPS, 2433 N. Mayfair Rd. Suite 111, Milwaukee, WI 53226, 414-257-0910.

Hydraulic Specialist
1. Centering the directional valve controlling the work cylinder in circuit #1, stops the cylinder mid-stroke, and a leak develops across the piston, what will happen?
a. Cylinder will drift down to bottom. b. Cylinder will stay stationary and not move.
c. Cylinder will extend due to regeneration. d. Cylinder will drift up to the top.
2. In circuit #2, FC1 flow control is adjusted to 5 GPM when the pump pressure was set at 500 PSI. When pressure is increased to 1000 PSI using the main relief valve with the cylinder retracting, what will happen?
a. Pressure goes to 1000 PSI and the cylinder will continue to retract at the same speed. b. Cylinder speed will decrease.
c. Cylinder speed will increase. d. Pressure remains at 500 PSI, since the load causes pressure and cylinder speed stays the same.
3. If you have a 10:1 intensifier to boost pressure and supply it with a 20 GPM pump at 1000 PSI and the output pressure is 10,000 PSI, what is the output flow? a. 2 GPM b. 10 GPM
c. 20 GPM d. 200 GPM
4. Circuit #2, accumulator is a 10 gal. bladder type with a gas pre-charge of 600 PSI. If flow control FC2 is pressure compensated and set to pass 7 GPM and the Valve is shifted to extend the cylinder, what will be the cylinder speed while extending?
a. 323 IPM for 60 sec., then slows down to 231 IPM b. 231 IPM entire stroke
c. 646 IPM for 10 sec. then speeds up to 864 IPM d. Starts off fast and continues to slow down entire stroke
5. If you put a std. vacuum gage reading “0” HG in the pump inlet line and the pump was 24” above the oil level, what would the gage read if the unit was started, all air bled out, (unit was air tight), and shut down? Oil SG is .87 a. 3.08 inches of HG b. 1.54 inches of HG
c. 1.98 inches of HG d. 0.00 inches of HG
6. If a pilot operated relief valve is passing 5 GPM and the pressure reading is 500 PSI, what happens to pressure if the flow is doubled to 10 GPM. a. Pressure would climb b. Pressure stays somewhat the same
c. Pressure goes down d. Pressure becomes unsteady
7. In circuit #1, if you start the electric motor, and energize SOL 2A, what would happen?
a. Pressure goes to 500 PSI and Work Cylinder retracts b. Nothing
c. Pressure goes to relief setting and Cylinder retracts d. Main pressure to 1500 PSI & gage “R” to 500 PSI
8. In circuit #3, if the directional valve is un-shifted after raising the cylinder up half way with a 5000 lb. load, what would gage “E” read?
a. 200 PSI b. 500 PSI
c. 1000 PSI d. 1500 PSI
9. In circuit #4, Cylinder #1 is a 3x1x20, Cylinder #2 is a 4x2x10, Cylinder #3 is a 2x1x20, Load #1 is 3000 lb., Load #2 is 1000 lb., Pressure valve is set to 350 PSI. What is P1?
a. 262 PSI b. 697 PSI
c. 1074 PSI d. 2093 PSI
10. In circuit #1, if the pump had a 15 gpm output and both cylinders were 5 x 3.5 x 30 and never moved at the same time, what size of hoses would be used on lines #1, 2 & 3 if max inlet is 3 ft/sec, pressure is 20 ft/sec and return is 10 ft/sec?
a. #1 = 1-1/2” hose, #2 = 5/8” hose, #3 = 1” hose b. #1 = 1-1/4” hose, #2 = 1/2” hose, #3 = 5/8” hose
c. #1 = 2” hose, #2 = 5/8” hose, #3 = 1-1/4” hose d. #1 = 1-1/2” hose, #2 = 5/8” hose, #3 = 1-1/4” hose
11. What would be the extension speed of a 6” bore cylinder with a 3” rod using a 20 GPM pump supply with both ports connected together, (regenerative circuit)? a. 109 in./min. b. 218 in./min.
c. 654 in./min. d. 163 in./min.
12. Circuit #2, what size accumulator is needed to keep the cylinder traveling at 800 IPM for 36” of stroke? Assume FC2 is pressure compensated and the pre-charge pressure is 400 PSI.
a. 1 Gallon b. 2 Gallons
c. 5 Gallons d. 10 Gallons
13. In circuit #5, what minimum amperage size would Fuse #1 need to be if the resistance of Solenoid #1 is 100 ohms? a. 4.00 amps b. 0.25 amps
c. 2.50 amps d. 0.39 amps
14. What two points in circuit #5, line 4, would read the largest voltage drop? Line 4 is not energized.
a. A to B b. B to C
c. C to D d. D to E
15. In circuit #1, if the Work Cylinder is a 5x1x30 and has a 10,000 lb load and half way up the valve “L” looses its electrical signal and the cylinder has a small leak across its piston, what would gages “R” & “S” read?
a. Both would read 12,732 PSI b. Gage “R” = 0 PSI & gage “S” = 1500 PSI
c. Both would read 1500 PSI d. Both would read 510 PSI